MoMA’s ‘How to Make Pottery and Ceramic Sculpture’ was initially published in 1947. Photo source: moma.org
MoMA’s 1947 publication, How To Make Pottery and Ceramic Sculpture, by Julia Duncan and Victor D’Amico, contains 20 hand-built ceramic projects, from pinch and coil pots to slip casting. Here is Project VII – The Human Figure.
The War Veterans’ Art Center was devoted to the rehabilitation of veterans. Its goal was “to discover the best and the most effective ways of bringing about, through the arts, the readjustment of the veteran to civilian life.” The work of the War Veteran Art Center was considered progressive within the field of art therapy in the United States (source: moma.org).
Over 1000 vets took classes in painting, sculpture and ceramics, jewelry, design, illustration and more. The War Veteran’s Art Center couldn’t accommodate all the vets on the waiting list, so MoMA put out a series of art manuals that could be used for self-instruction or as an aid to any teacher of large groups.
The 20 hand-built projects in the ceramics manual are well-written and well-photographed. Stay tuned – I may feature more later this year.
Happy Throwback Thursday! Stop by on Thursdays to see what I’ve found in my vintage art education collection.
Thinking about a Winter Olympic art project? Why not make your own sport trophy for your favorite Olympic event? Our fifth graders created these sport trophies using floral wire, foil, and plaster wrap. Accessories were made from toothpicks and popsicle sticks. We used acrylic paint or metallic spray paint (everyone can ‘get a gold’ if you use gold spray paint!). Everything was attached to a wooden base. You’ll need reference photos as well.
Click here to see all my links to my favorite sculpture supplies. You can also find the floral wire at Michael’s and my favorite pop-up pre-cut foil at Costco and Smart and Final.
I taught this project to adults as well – they were able to create the unpainted trophies in about an hour. At the elementary level, this took us 6-8 sessions at 40 minutes per class. Middle and high school students with NICE LONG CLASS PERIODS (envy envy envy) should be able to do this in a couple of weeks.
Our students look forward to this project for years. They treasure their trophies for years after. A lot of work, but worth it.
What’s the most popular, most anticipated project in the entire art program? Our plaster masks! Every year the 5th graders create masks using nothing more than plaster wrap and foil (and maybe a few yogurt cups). Painted and embellished with yarn and glitter, they hang in the art room until they star in the spring art show.
5th graders used plaster wrap and foil to create fanciful masks.
Plaster wrap is plaster-coated cotton gauze. It is similar to the material used to cast broken bones. Dip it in water, and it hardens within minutes.
Learning about masks
The week before the art project, we learn about masks. Masks can be used for plays and dances, for rituals, for protection, for celebrations (such as Halloween), or just for decoration. I bring in my entire mask collection from around the world. I distribute the masks between the tables, and we do a rotation so that everyone can try on all the masks. I show the kids all the students photos of the student masks from 2012. I also posted a link to all the masks at the Mingei Museum in San Diego, just in case they wanted to do some research at home.
Start by covering the outside of the plastic armature or face form with foil (this keeps the armature clean so we can re-use it next year). Next, cover the outside of the armature with three layers of plaster wrap (dipped in water). After applying the wet plaster, students should smooth it with their fingers. Let dry overnight.
Warning! Don’t Pour the Plaster Water Down the Drain!
At the end of class, DO NOT DUMP THE PLASTER WATER DOWN THE DRAIN (Never. That plaster will harden in the drain and cause a nasty, expensive clog). Instead, pour all the plaster water into the 5-gallon bucket and put it in a corner. By morning, the heavy plaster will have settled to the bottom of the bucket, leaving clear water at the top. Pour off the clear water. Don’t dump the plaster residue. Stick the bucket back in the corner until the next class.
Days 2-4: Add facial features and horns
Prep as you did for the last class. Pass out scissors.
Most facial features such as eyes, nose and lips can be made by adding wadded or rolled wet plaster strips. For a snout, use an inverted yogurt cup covered with plaster strips. Students can cut plaster into smaller strips if desired.
Horns can be made using twisted foil. Just shape the foil, and ‘tape’ it to the face using strips of plaster. Then wrap the horn in plaster strips, starting at the base of the horn. You can use this technique to make tusks, arms, etc.
Horns are made from twisted foil covered with plaster wrap. Snout is an inverted yogurt cup covered with plaster wrap.
M’s mammoth mask has ears made from paper plates covered with two layers of plaster wrap. Trunk was made from yogurt cups, foil and plaster wrap. B’s villain mask has horns made from foil covered in plaster wrap.
Big elephant ears (and bird wings) were made using cut paper plates covered in two layers of plaster wrap.
Remove the armature and throw away the foil covering. Paint mask with acrylic paint. (Note: I have had bad results painting plaster with tempera. It cracked and flaked off. If you absolutely must use tempera, put some white glue in the paint).
Day 6: Decorate
Decorate the masks with yarn, glitter, etc. White glue works really well with yarn. Use hot glue to add heavier decorations.
Attach a binder clip to the top of the mask and pin to the wall.
I’m not going to lie – this is the most challenging project I offer to any grade any year, both for me and for the students. It is completely open-ended – they can make any sort of mask, and use any decoration I have in the art room. I have two parent volunteers most weeks for this project. It would be easier if I had more than 40 minutes per class, especially because I have to allow 7 minutes for clean up.
End of project plaster clean up
What to do with a bucket of plaster goo? After you have poured off all the clear water, scoop all the remaining plaster goo from the bottom of the bucket into an old cardboard box and throw the box away.